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Vascular skip to main page content home rsm journals current issue archive online first subscribe feedback submit e-alerts help search this journal go advanced journal search ⻠user name password sign in advertisement a review on thromboangiitis obliterans pathophysiology: thrombosis and angiitis, which is to blame? Bahare fazeli * ↓ and seyed abdolrahim rezaee † *immunology department, avicenna (bu-ali) research institute, bu-ali sq. , ferdosi sq. , mashhad, khorasan razavi, pc 91967-73117 †immunology department, faculty of medicine, mashhad university of medical sciences, pardis campus, azadi sq. , mashhad, khorasan razavi, iran correspondence to: bahare fazeli, avicenna (bu-ali) research institute, bu-ali sq. , ferdosi sq. , mashhad, pc 91967-73117, iran; e-mail: bahar. Fazeli{at}gmail. Com abstract a century has passed since thromboangiitis obliterans (tao), or buerger's disease, was first described, but the etiology remains unclear. It is still uncertain as to whether thrombosis or vascular inflammation is the first event. viagra for sale buy viagra online where can i buy viagra online buy generic viagra buy viagra online online pharmacy buy viagra from india cheap generic viagra cheap viagra cheap viagra online generic viagra online Tao is an episodic inflammatory and thrombotic-occlusive vascular disease of unknown origin. The involvement of the distal vessels and nerves within the neuro-vascular bundles occurs almost always in legs and occasionally in arms. The cumulative data demonstrate that at the cellular and molecular levels, at least four main components of inflammatory reactions, including endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes and sensory neurons, might be involved in tao pathogenesis. The interactions among these cells in an altered microenvironment of small- and medium-sized vessels may also orchestrate the onset of tao events. In this review, the factors that may promote thrombosis and angiitis are reconsidered at three levels: (1) host characteristics such as male gender and genetic background; (2) probable triggers including cigarette smoking and infectious agents; and (3) environmental factors such as chronic anxiety and mental stress as a consequence of low socioeconomic status. At each level, the interactions among vascular endothelium, plat.
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